Technical Articles


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Reinforced Concrete Floor Systems (2 PDH)

Author: David Fanella, Iyad Alsamsam

Year: 2005

Pages: 8

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Reinforced concrete floor systems can provide an economical solution to a wide variety of situations. Numerous types of nonprestressed and prestressed floor systems are available to satisfy virtually any span and loading condition, see Figure 1. Selecting the most effective system for a given set of constraints can be vital to achieving overall economy, especially for low- and mid-rise buildings and for buildings subjected to relatively low lateral forces where the cost of the lateral-force-resisting system is minimal.


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Post-Tensioning for Two-Way Slabs (1 PDH)

Author: Amy Reineke Trygestad

Year: 2005

Pages: 8

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Every major metropolitan area is getting a facelift. Old buildings are being renovated and converted, while new construction continues to add to the skyline. Downtown living is more popular than ever, and with residential construction, two-way post-tensioned flat plates are the structural system of choice. Learn the basics of post-tensioning two-way slabs in this compact article.


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Structural Integrity Requirements (1 PDH)

Author: M. E. Kamara, Mike Mota

Year: 2006

Pages: 8

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Structures capable of safely supporting all conventional design loads may suffer local damage from severe, local abnormal loads, such as explosions caused by gas or industrial liquids, vehicle impact, or impact of local effects from very high winds such as those recorded in tornadoes. Generally, such abnormal loads or events are not design considerations. However, basic structural intergrity is an essential feature for limiting dissporportionate damamge and utlimately achieveing building resilience, durability, and serviceability


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Engineering Mass Concrete Structures (1 PDH)

Author: John Gajda, Iyad Alsamsam

Year: 2006

Pages: 8

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Mass concrete is all around us. Traditionally, mass concrete has been associated with dams and other extremely large placements. This is no longer the case. Larger placements for economy and the use of concretes with high cement contents for durability and rapid strength gain mean that an increasing number of concrete placements must be treated as mass concrete. Learn the basics of mass concrete spcification and mitigation techniques of damaging effect of excessive heat of hydration.


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Torsion Design of Structural Concrete Based (1 PDH)

Author: M. E. Kamara, B. G. Rabbat

Year: 2007

Pages: 8

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Upon reading the article and completing the quiz, the reader should be able to understand the behavior and design of structural concrete members subjected to torsion. The article presents the American Concrete Institute Building Code (ACI 318) design provisions and detailing requirements for torsion design.


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Strut-and-Tie Model for Structural Concrete Design (1 PDH)

Author: Attila Beres, B. G. Rabbat

Year: 2007

Pages: 8

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This article sponsored by StructurePoint discusses the strut-and-tie model in concrete structures. Upon reading the article, the reader should be able to understand the basic principles and the related ACI 318-05 Code requirements for Strut-and-tie modeling, analysis, design and detailing of deep beam members in buildings and bridges.


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Economical Concrete Formwork

Author: Amy Reineke Trygestad

Year: 2006

Pages: 1

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The key to designing economical reinforced concrete structures is not optimization of the material quantities. Rather, the key is constructability. Successful concrete building design must include consideration of the building process, sequencing, forming, shoring, and staging. Formwork consideration affect over 50% of the building framing construction cost. This article focuses on economical concrte building formwork selection.


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Concrete Building Members - Assembling Loads

Author: Amy Reineke Trygestad

Year: 2005

Pages: 5

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An essential primer on the origin of loads and combinations necessary for the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members. Detemine everything the concrete member will support and make sure you account for all loads needed for design. Article provides a summary of external and internal the engineers needs to consider in any concrete building or bridge desing project.


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Design of Concrete Structures for Fire Effects

Author: Amy Reineke Trygestad

Year: 2005

Pages: 4

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For any concrete building or structure, the governing code will require provisions to achieve a specific fire rating. Building owner may require your design to comply with stricter fire design requirements. Learn the basics of fire endurance in selection and design of reinforced concrete member design. This article will provide you a primer and basic understanding of fire effects and rating of concrete structures.


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Structural Integrity Requirements for Concrete Buildings

Author: Portland Cement Association (PCA)

Year: 2006

Pages: 6

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Concrete structures capable of safely supporting all conventional design loads may suffer local damage from severe local abnormal loads,such as explosions due to gas or industrial liquids, or vehicle impact. The ability of concrete buildings to withstand blast loads can be substantially enhanced with minor changes in reinforcement detailing. Explore ACI 318 concrete design and detailing requirements to provide continuity, redundancy, and increase ductility of concrete buildings.


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Two-day Construction Cycle for High-Rise Structures Based on Use of Preshores

Author: Jacob Grossman

Year: 1986

Pages: 5

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Classic article by a renowned engineer and formost expert in concrete floor systems. Reflecting on how New york city engineers and contractors have perfected the two-day construction cycle for flat plate and flat slab high-rise buildings. A step by step procedure to achieve construction efficiency using preshores during the stripping of primary forms and shores while maintaining safety. Must read for any concrete designer!


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Primer - Blast and Progressive Collapse Effects on Buildings

Author: Portland Cement Association (PCA)

Year: 2006

Pages: 8

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Primer introducing progressive collapse as a situation where local failure of a primary structural component(s) leads to the collapse of adjoining members, in turn leading to additional collapse. Hence, the extent of total damage is disproportionate to the original cause. Blast effects often result in a chain reaction or propagation of failures following damage to a relatively small portion of a structure.


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Design of Deep Beams - Girders

Author: Portland Cement Association (PCA)

Year: 1976

Pages: 12

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Deign of reinforced concrete deep beams, transfer girders, or coupling beams is increasingly common. This classic document with numerical design aids has been used for decades by practicing engineers. Today nonlinear analysis programs like spWall or detailed Strut and Tie models can also be used.


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Openings in Concrete Floor Slabs

Author: Portland Cement Association (PCA)

Year: 2006

Pages: 4

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Selecting locations and sizes for openings in two-way floor slabs for both new and existing structures can often be accommodated without requiring strengthening. Learn the ACI 318 provisions for selecting opening size and location in various floor slab systems and review and primer on strengthening techniques.


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Two Way Concrete Slab Punching Shear Check

Author: American Concrete Institute (ACI)

Year: 2005

Pages: 1

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When using the Equivalent Frame Method (EFM) to comply with ACI 318, should structural engineers check punching shear in two-way concrete floor slabs for biaxial moments simultaneously? Dr. Jim Wight and ACI Dan Falconer help clarify this issue in a Q&A from an issue of concrete international.


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Ultimate Load Factor Design for Spread Footing and Mat Foundations

Author: American Concrete Institute (ACI)

Year: 2010

Pages: 2

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Footing design requires load factors for calculation of pressure distribution and determination of soil contact area for all service and ultimate load combinations. Major differences between service and ultimate design conditions can exist. spMats Program users often ask about this and possible uplift? Dr. Jim Wight and ACI-318 members help clarify this issue in a Q&A from an issue of CI.